GEREJA KATOLIK ENSIKLOPEDI

Kanon Katedral

KANON KATEDRAL


Kanon


Personal, pribadi, pelaku Gerejawi (Latin Canonicus), anggota dari sebuah BAB atau hidup Badan Klerus/Agamawan menurut yang memerintah dan dipimpin oleh salah seorang dari mereka.

Apakah istilah seperti yang diterapkan kepada orang-orang yang berasal dari Kanon (Gk. Kanon), aturan atau dari istilah yang sama berarti daftar orang-orang yang melayani sebuah Gereja tertentu, banyak dibahas. Namun sepertinya ada berbagai macam BAB, masing-masing memiliki aturan khusus sendiri, hak dan hak istimewa, definisi paling akurat dari Kanon adalah "anggota dari sebuah bab". Beberapa penulis istilah telah diturunkan dari Kanon atau aturan kehidupan masyarakat yang diikuti oleh Klerus tertentu dan yang membedakan mereka dari orang lain yang tidak hidup di masyarakat. "Kanon A yang disebut dari Kanon, yaitu dari keteraturan kehidupan yang dipimpinnya" (Scarfantoni, ed. Lucca, 1723, I, 5). Lawan ini adalah opini bahwa Kanon yang disebut dari fakta bahwa nama mereka tertulis di daftar mereka yang bertugas di Gereja-Gereja tertentu yang mereka ditahbiskan. (Untuk penggunaan istilah abad pertengahan, lihat: Ducange, GLOSSAR. Med et infimæ Latinitatis, sv Canonicus). Yang terakhir tampaknya derivasi lebih logis dan sesuai dengan argumen Thomassinus dan kebanyakan penulis lainnya, yang setuju bahwa BAB Katedral kita sekarang adalah bentuk modern dari Tubuh Kuno Penatua yang di setiap Gereja tertentu yang dibentuk dengan Senat Uskup dari Gereja [Thomassinus, "Vetus ac nova disciplina", pt. I, bk. III, cc. vii-xi, dan LXIII-lxx; Binterim, "Denkwürdigkeiten" (1826), III (2), 317-84].

Awal Sejarah


Hal ini tidak mungkin untuk mengatakan kapan tepatnya Kanon pertama memiliki Pengakuan sebagai Badan yang berbeda dari sisa Klerus/Agamawan (lihat: Amort, Vetus disciplina canonicorum regularium et sæcularium, Venice, 1747). Dalam usia pertama Kekristenan ada bukti bahwa banyak Gereja memiliki Tubuh yang tepatnya mereka sendiri adalah Imam, meskipun tidak begitu jelas bahwa Klerus tersebut untuk menyimpan setiap aturan umum kehidupan (lihat: Kanon dan CANONESSES REGULER). Pada saat sama, ada banyak Klerus yang tidak tinggal di umum, misalnya Cenobites, dan istilah Kanon diterapkan kepada mereka pada awal abad keempat; tetapi tidak harus disimpulkan dari fakta ini bahwa Badan Kanon berawal pada mereka yang mengikuti Aturan Cenobitic Santo Agustinus (lihat: AUGUSTINE, RULE OF SAINT). Sejauh Gereja Barat yang bersangkutan, bukti tertentu pertama yang terkandung dalam Konstitusi Gerejawi yang terkenal atau tata cara biarawan Benediktin Chrodegang, Uskup Metz (763). "Regula Vitae communis"-nya (aturan hidup umum) itu sekaligus pemulihan dan adaptasi dari Rule of St. Augustine, dan ketentuan utamanya adalah bahwa rohaniwan yang diadopsi itu harus hidup bersama di bawah atap Uskup, melafalkan doa umum, melakukan sejumlah kerja manual, berdiam diri pada waktu tertentu, dan mengaku dosa dua kali setahun. Mereka tidak mengambil sumpah kemiskinan dan mereka bisa memegang kepentingan hidup di kepemilikan. Untuk teks Aturan Chrodegang, lihat: Mansi, "Coll Conc..", XIV, 313; juga Walter, "Fontes Jur. Pkh.", n. 6, dan edisi W. Schmitz (Hanover, 1891); lihat: Ebner, dalam "ROM. Quartalschrift" (1891) v, 81-86. Dua kali sehari mereka bertemu untuk mendengar BAB dari aturan pendiri mereka (lihat "Vita Chrodegangi", di "Sen Germ. Hist .: Script.", X, 552), maka pertemuan itu sendiri segera disebut BAB (Capitulum ) dan Capitularies Anggota (Capitulares). Kanon kemudian seperti sekarang membentuk Dewan Uskup dan membantu dia dalam putusan dari Keuskupannya. Mereka melekat pada Gereja-Gereja Katedral, menjadi Model teratur Canonica Vita, segera dikenal sebagai Canonici par excellence dan pada waktunya membentuk Badan Khusus, dengan semua Hak yang tepat untuk Tubuh tersebut. Dari periode ini tanggal pembacaan setiap hari oleh Badan Kanon Ilahi atau Jam Kanonik (lihat: Brevir). Konsili Aachen (789) dan Mainz (813) berisi ketentuan mengenai Kanon, dan 816 Dewan Aachen menyusun aturan dari 147 artikel untuk seluruh Tubuh dari Danon (Hergenrother-Kirsch, "Kirchengesch.", 4th ed. , Freiburg, 1904, II, 170-74;. Heimbucher, "Orden und Kongregationen", 2d ed, Freiburg, 1907, 3-21). Di kesembilan, kesepuluh dan abad kesebelas, kelemahan merayap; kehidupan di masyarakat tidak lagi ketat diamati; sumber-sumber pendapatan dibagi, dan bagian-bagian yang dialokasikan untuk kanon individu. Ini segera menyebabkan perbedaan pendapatan, akibatnya untuk ketamakan, iri hati dan penghancuran sebagian Kehidupan Kanonik (Canonica Vita). Berbagai reformasi yang dilembagakan oleh Nicholas II (1059) dan Alexander II (1063). Ada juga reformasi oleh Innocent II dan Dewan Lateran (1139), dan oleh Benediktus XII (1339). [Pada kehancuran Canonica Vita sebelumnya melihat keluhan dari Anselm dari Havelberg (d. 1155), di PL, CLXXXVIII, 1083, dan dari Gerhoh dari Reichersberg (d. 169), dalam volume kelima Baluze ini "Miscellanea", ed. . Mansi (Lucca, 1761)]. Perkembangan Gereja dan peningkatan jumlah umat beriman telah diberikan satu Uskup Gereja, dan Kanon-nya tidak mencukupi untuk kebutuhan masyarakat; sesuai, berdampingan dengan orang-orang yang mengikuti kehidupan masyarakat ada Klerus lain yang melayani Gereja-Gereja, berbakti dan memenuhi tugas Parokial biasa. Para Uskup secara bertahap diturunkan, bantuan yang lebih besar dari ini Imam Paroki dalam pengelolaan Keuskupan mereka, dan Coadjutors sekuler seperti itu secara resmi dilantik sebagai Kanon oleh Konsili Trent. (lihat: "Analecta Jur Pontif..", 1863, VI, pp 1657, 1795, 1978;. "Les chapîtres des cathédrales dans le Concilede Trente"). Undang-undang dari Dewan Trent (sess V, XXII, XXIV.) dibawa ke keseragaman kebiasaan yang berbeda-beda mengenai pengangkatan, masa, tugas, dll, Kanon; itu juga diatur hubungan mereka kepada Uskup dalam administrasi Keuskupan dan di mana pun Gereja Katolik sekarang dalam kekuatan penuh Konstitusi Tridentine diamati. Di negara-negara seperti Inggris, Irlandia, Kanada, Australia dan Amerika Serikat, Pemerintahan Gerejawi yang tidak ketat sesuai dengan keputusan disiplin dari Dewan Trent; oleh karena itu, meskipun di negara-negara seperti Kanon dapat ditunjuk, mereka tidak memiliki Hak Kanonik atau status yang milik Kanon dalam arti kata penuh. Di Inggris sebelum Reformasi, banyak pasal yang terdiri dari biarawan Benedictine atau Kanon biasa, tapi ini semua sekuler pada masa Reformasi. Saat ini kanon Protestan di Gereja Inggris memiliki sedikit untuk melakukan putusan dengan Keuskupan, dan bahwa kewajiban utama mereka adalah tinggal.
Sebagai kanon, menjadi biasa terpisah ke dalam jemaat yang berbeda mereka, mengambil nama mereka dari wilayah di mana mereka hidup, atau dari kebiasaan khas yang mereka kenakan, atau dari orang yang memimpin jalan dalam renovasi hidup mereka. Oleh karena itu, kami memiliki Kanon Putih Premontre; Kanon Putih St. John Lateran; Kanon Hitam St. Augustine; Kanon St. Victor di Paris dan juga di Marseilles (Muratori, "Diss.de Canonicis", di "Antiq Ital medii ævi..", V, 163; G. Pennoti, "General hist totius s ord... . clericor canonicorum ", Roma, 1624; Ginzel," Die canonische Lebensweise der Geistlichen ", Ratisbon, 1851).

Jenis Kanon


Kanon dibagi dengan cara berikut:
(1) Kanon Katedral, yang, melekat pada Gereja Katedral, membentuk Senat atau Dewan Uskup; Kanon kolega yang melakukan pekerjaan Kanonik Kantor Gereja dimana mereka ditempatkan, namun tidak terhubung dengan alasan pekerjaan kantor mereka dengan Pemerintahan Keuskupan.
(2) Kanon Prebendary, yang memiliki Prebend atau pendapatan tetap melekat jabatan Pastur tersebut; Kanon biasa, yang tidak memiliki Prebend.
(3) Kanon de Numero, yaitu orang-orang dari Gereja yang jumlah Kanon tidak dapat berkurang atau meningkat;
(4) Kanon Supernumerary, dengan Kanon de Numero asisten. Kanon Supernumerary dibagi menjadi tiga kelas, yaitu:
(A) orang-orang yang Bapa Suci tunjuk dan siapa yang akan menerima Prebend kosong pertama (Kanon Pengharapan);
(B) Kanon Kehormatan (untuk ini lihat: Konstitusi Leo XIII "Illud est proprium", 21 Januari 1894 dan Keputusan terbaru dari Kongres. Ritus, 14 November 1902),
(C) Kanon yang ditambahkan pada berdirinya sebuah Prebend baru.
Sebelumnya, inti perbedaan itu yang membuat antara Kanon, sekuler dan teratur. Kanon biasa, seperti membentuk Dewan Uskup, sekarang hampir usang, dan peraturan khusus dimana mereka terikat, hak-hak mereka, hak istimewa, dan tugas, diperlakukan penuh dalam bekerja pada Hukum Kanon. Status khusus dari Kanon di negara-negara berbahasa Inggris akan dipertimbangkan kemudian.

Cara penunjukan


Karena hanya Bapa Suci yang bisa mendirikan BAB, maka juga dia sendiri memiliki kekuasaan untuk menunjuk individu, anggota dari sebuah BAB. Kekuatan ini, mungkin, dan pada kenyataannya didelegasikan, dan karenanya Kanon kadang diangkat oleh Paus, kadang dengan Uskup atau tubuh Capitular, kadang oleh orang lain kepada siapa kebenaran telah diberikan. Dengan aturan Chancery Romawi yang semua Prebends menjadi kosong di Kuria (yaitu ketika salah satu pemegang Benefici meninggal di Roma) dicadangkan untuk Tahta Suci, juga janji untuk sebuah Prebend kosong, bekas pemegang yang telah dirampas itu, dengan tindakan Tahta Suci, pengangkatan Pembesar pertama dari setiap BAB, dan untuk semua Prebends lain yang menjadi kosong selama bulan Januari, Februari, April, Mei, Juli, Agustus, Oktober dan November. Di luar ini Hukum tidak tegas menyatakan di antaranya berada kekuatan untuk menyusun ke Canonries Katedral dan Prebends, tetapi pendapat umum adalah bahwa Hak diinvestasikan secara bersamaan di Uskup dan BAB; oleh karena itu untuk pemilihan valid mayoritas Kanon harus menyetujui dahulu dengan Uskup ketika Janji baru dibuat. Pengecualian dibuat dalam kasus berikut: jika dari dasar Gereja atau Benefici, Janji milik orang tertentu; jika dahulu ada Kustom sebaliknya; penunjukan teolog Kanon dan Kanon penjara; Kanon di Perancis (Deshayes, Memento Juris Pkh., 3d ed., Paris, 1903). Pengangkatan praktis selalu dilakukan melalui Surat dan kepemilikan jabatan Pastur tidak dapat diperoleh sampai calon memiliki Surat Pengangkatannya. Konsili Trent, perintah yang pada hari mengambil kepemilikan, atau setidaknya dalam waktu dua bulan; Kanon baru adalah membuat profesi, yakin dan juga ketaatan kepada Uskup. Profesi kesetiaan ini dibuat untuk personal Uskup, atau jika dia absen, untuk Vikaris Jenderal atau lainnya yang didelegasikan untuk tujuan ini. Pengakuan ketaatan ini harus dibuat di hadapan BAB, jika tidak, Kanon baru dapat mencabut kepemilikan dan buah Prebendal dan distribusi harian.

Kualifikasi


Konsili Trent mengatakan (sess XXIII, XXIV.), bahwa sejak pejabat dari Katedral yang di-Lembagakan untuk melestarikan dan meningkatkan disiplin Gerejawi, perlu, bahwa mereka yang diangkat harus unggul dalam ketakwaan dan menjadi contoh bagi orang lain; juga, karena mereka adalah untuk membantu Uskup di kantor dan karya, yang ditunjuk hanya mereka yang harus mampu memenuhi tugas Kanonik. Kualifikasi yang dibutuhkan adalah: kelahiran sah, usia tepat, Perintah Suci, pendidikan sesuai, terampil dalam Gregorian, yang dikenal karakter baik dan reputasi. Selain itu, Dewan menetapkan bahwa tanpa kualifikasi ini Janji tersebut tidak berlaku. Sebelum kandidat mengaku jabatannya Pastur, tidak hanya Orang yang menunjuk tetapi juga BAB memiliki Hak untuk memeriksa dan menanyakan apakah kualitas yang diperlukan ada dalam kandidat.

Tugas


Kanon, sebagai anggota BAB, berutang hormat Uskup dalam tiga cara: dengan mengakui dia tempat pertama; dengan memberinya bantuan; oleh dia mampu mengawal. Diakui Uskup, memiliki referensi tempat pertama untuk BAB paduan prosesi-suara dan tindakan publik lainnya. Uskup berhak juga dibantu dari dua Kanon dalam Pemerintahan Keuskupannya, dan semua Kanon terikat untuk hadir ketika ia merayakan Pontifically di Gereja Katedral; pada kesempatan tersebut, mereka harus menemuinya di tempat yang ditunjuk, bagaimanapun, tidak lebih dari 160 kilometer dari Gereja; dan setelah layanan, mereka harus memperlakukan dia ke pintu Gereja. Kewajiban dari Kanon yang berkaitan dengan layanan Khoir terdiri dalam pembacaan Kantor Ilahi publik dan hadir di Misa BAB, kecuali sah dimaafkan. Ada kewajiban lanjut, dimana tinggal tidak ada Kanon, mungkin absen dari tugas Khoir selama lebih dari tiga bulan di setiap tahun. Seperti disebut di atas, Kanon harus membuat profesinya iman dalam waktu dua bulan pengangkatannya; dia juga terikat, dan dapat dipaksa oleh sanksi, untuk menghadiri pertemuan rutin BAB, dan, akhirnya ia harus menghadiri Advent dan Kotbah Prapaskah di bawah hukuman hilangnya distribusi, atau sebagian pendapatannya, tergantung pada keberadaan pribadinya di Kantor Gereja.

Hak (umum)


Kanon, Hak independen dari Para Uskup, yang terutama berkaitan dengan hal-hal yang harus mengacu pada administrasi BAB itu sendiri, misalnya, jalan di mana uang saku harian untuk didistribusikan; urutan Kanon yang akan dipanggil untuk Choir, BAB, dll, mereka dapat saja melakukan apa-apa yang merugikan Gereja, Katedral atau bertentangan kebiasaan kuno tanpa Persetujuan dari Uskup. Mereka tidak bisa, misalnya, memungkinkan Kanon lebih dari tiga bulan 'non-residence atau latihan kepemilikan atas properti Katedral, menerima Misa atau yayasan. Ada, namun beberapa hal yang menurut Hukum Kanon, Uskup tidak bisa melakukan tanpa Persetujuan dari BAB, dan hal-hal lain yang ia tidak dapat lakukan tanpa nasihat dari Kanon. Persetujuan berarti Persetujuan oleh major et sanior pars (mayoritas, asalkan terdiri dari anggota yang lebih prudent). Konsul berarti konsultasi dengan BAB sebelum Tindakan, untuk mencegah pengendapan pada bagian dari Uskup. Ketika konsultasi ini diperlukan (yaitu disediakan oleh Hukum), tindakan tersebut akan menjadi tidak valid tanpa itu, tetapi Uskup tidak terikat untuk mengikuti nasihat dari BAB ini. Persetujuan dari BAB diperlukan dalam kasus berikut: untuk pemindahtanganan harta tak gerak nilai milik Katedral, BAB atau mensa Uskup, yaitu mendiangnya; untuk berunding benefices pengumpulan milik Uskup dan BAB secara bersama; untuk mengecilkan Canonries dan penyatuan benefices sederhana karena kekerdilan prebends; untuk menyatukan benefices dengan alasan lain; untuk peningkatan atau penurunan jumlah Kanon; untuk setiap proses serius merugikan Kanon atau meneruskan; untuk pemesanan Perayaan khusus; untuk surrogation penguji atau petugas sejenis di luar saat Sinode. Nasihat Para Kanon diperlukan: ketika Uskup harus membuat ketentuan berupa uang dari pendapatan Keuskupan untuk memberikan dalam pengajaran Kitab Suci, teologi atau tata bahasa untuk imam; untuk membagi prebends dari Kanon ke subdiaconal, diakonal dan imamat prebends; untuk mendekritkan prosesi; dalam membuat Keputusan Sinode. Dapat dicatat bahwa hukum adat membuat Uskup independen, saran dari Kanonnya dalam hal Keputusan Sinode (Ferraris, Bibl. Prompta, s.v. kapitulum, art. 2, n. 9). Hak Khusus Kanon yang terutama berkaitan dengan Pemerintah Keuskupan pada kematian atau terjemahan dari Uskup. Begitu tahta menjadi kosong semua yurisdiksi Uskup biasa lolos ke BAB, dan juga semua yang oleh adat milik Uskup. Hak istimewa nyata milik Kanon, tetapi bukan hak pribadi. Mereka juga berhasil kekuatan-kekuatan yang telah terus-menerus didelegasikan. Jika bab dikurangi menjadi satu, salah satu yang dapat memilih seorang Capitular Imam; tapi dia tidak bisa memilih sendiri. Sementara tahta lowong Kanon tidak bisa melakukan inovasi apapun, tetapi dalam waktu delapan hari dari lowongan itu harus dipenuhi untuk tujuan pemilihan orang yang memerintah Keuskupan dalam nama BAB. Pemilihan adalah rahasia dan mayoritas terbuka sudah cukup.

Insignia

Canons when present in choir for the Divine Office must wear the canonical dress. The choir or canonical dress consists of a black cassock (without train) and the cotta or surplice. Additional articles of dress, e.g. the cappa or hooded cape and a cassock of different colour, e.g. purple, are not to be worn unless specially granted by the Holy See. If the canon be a bishop he should wear the rochet and mantelletta over his purple cassock. Special privileges of dress have been granted to many chapters by the Holy See either when the chapter was erected or afterwards by particular indult. In all cases the terms of the indult must be carefully observed. It is to be noted that canons are never allowed to wear over the cassock the rochet only. Generally speaking, the canonical dress may be worn at functions for which the surplice is not prescribed, but only in the cathedral church or when in another church the canons are present as a body (capitulariter), three canons being sufficient to represent the chapter in this way. Consequently the canons may not wear the choral dress in a diocese other than their own, nor may an individual canon wear his habit in a church which he is serving either permanently or for a time. The pileolus (skull cap) and biretta are not, strictly speaking, part of choir dress.
Precedence

If, as in many instances is the case, the prebends are distinct, the order of precedence is: dignitaries, canons of sacerdotal order, canons of diaconal order, and canons of subdiaconal order. The dignitaries take precedence among themselves according to statutes or well-established custom. If the remainder of the prebends are all of the sacerdotal order and all the holders are priests, they take precedence according to priority of taking possession of their canonries. The offices of canon theologian, canon penitentiary, etc., do not entitle the holders to any precedence. The precedence given to a vicar- general, if a canon, only belongs to him when wearing the dress proper to his office.
Status of canons in England

The following is a summary of the legislation of the synods of Westminster. The chapter consists of ten canons and one dignitary who is called the provost. (In some dioceses the number of canons has been increased.) A canon theologian and a canon penitentiary must be appointed, by concursus, for each chapter, but there is no distinction into sacerdotal, diaconal, and subdiaconal canons. The pope appoints the provost, and he also nominates to canonries becoming vacant in January and the alternate months of the year. In February and the other alternate months the appointments belong in turn to the bishop and the chapter. The canons do not actually make the appointment, but they send in to the bishop a list of three names and the bishop may choose one of three. By a recent decree of Propaganda (2 April, 1903) three honorary canons are allowed to each diocese, and in certain dioceses special indults have been granted with regard to the choir dress and the times when it may be worn. The canons meet once a month, and their choir obligations are limited to a portion of the Office on the day of meeting. Regarding the election to a vacant bishopric, the canons in England have only the right to make a recommendation of three candidates whom they deem to be suitable (cf. decrees of Cong. of Propaganda, 5 Apr., 1851; 21 Apr. 1852; 21 Jan., 1855, and "Collect. S. Cong. de Prop. Fide", Rome, 1906). In Ireland, as in Scotland and other countries where the law of the Church is not in full vigour, the powers and duties of canons are much restricted, in fact their status is mainly honorific, although in some isolated dioceses a near approach is made to the legislation which governs canons in England. For the status of canons in the ecclesiastical province of Quebec, see Gignac, "Compendium juris. eccl. ad usum cleri Canadensis" (Quebec, 1901), De Personis, Nos. 493-94.

In addition to the special members of a chapter already mentioned there are usually appointed the following, in order to secure well-ordered services: precentor, sacristan, cancellor, succentor, punctator, hebdomadarian. All these are not necessarily included in every chapter; the actual arrangement is a matter for local convenience and custom.

Chapter
The name Chapter (Latin capitulum), designating certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies, is said to be derived from the chapter of the rule book, which it was the custom to read in the assemblies of monks. By degrees the meeting itself was called the chapter and the place of meeting the chapter house. From these conventual chapters or meetings of monks for the transaction of business connected with their monasteries or orders, the designation passed over to somewhat analogous assemblies of other ecclesiastics. Hence we speak of collegiate chapters and of cathedral chapters. In general a chapter may be defined as an association of clerics of a certain church forming a moral body and instituted by ecclesiastical authority for the purpose of promoting the divine worship by means of choir service. If it be a cathedral chapter, however, its principal object is to assist the bishop in the government of his diocese, and the choir service is only secondary. Members of chapters are called canons.
Origin and development

From the earliest times the priests and deacons of the cathedral city aided the bishop in conducting ecclesiastical affairs. Considered as a body, these clerics were called the Presbyterium. The custom often obtained of bishop and clergy occupying a common dwelling, and this fact, joined with the example of the monks, led to a uniform method of life. About the end of the fourth century St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, reduced this common life to a more perfect form, and when, later, many of his clerics themselves became bishops, they introduced similar rules in their churches. In Spain, Italy, and England (Bede, Hist. Eccl., I, xxvii) early traces are found of this common life of the bishop and his priests. Among the Franks, especially, St. Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz (d. 766), formed his clergy into a community bound by a rule, which was, however, distinct from that of regulars. From this rule or canon, the members of the body derived their name of canons. Later on other larger churches, in imitation of the cathedral, adopted a similar mode of life, and hence arose the distinction between canons of cathedral and collegiate churches, some of whom were secular and some regular. The main object of the last-named capitular bodies is to promote the splendour of God's worship by choir service. This article will treat particularly of cathedral chapters.
Constitution of cathedral chapters

A cathedral chapter constitutes a moral body or corporation. Inasmuch as it is an ecclesiastical corporation it can be erected only by the pope, according to the prevailing discipline. The chapter can be considered as forming one body with the bishop, in as far as it constitutes his senate and aids him in the government of his diocese; or as forming a body distinct from the bishop, having its own regulations and interests. Viewed under the first aspect the cathedral chapter has the bishop for its head; under the last, it has its own proper superior. Taking the chapter in the strict sense, however, canonists generally declare that the bishop must always be distinguished from it; nor can he be called a member of the chapter. Anciently, the principal dignitary of the chapter was the archdeacon, but from the eleventh century the dean, who was also archpriest, had the internal government of the chapter. In some countries this dignitary is called the provost. The collation to canonries, by common law, pertains to the bishop and the chapter conjointly, unless in the case of such canonships as are papal reservations. The nomination of the head of the chapter belongs to the pope. In some countries, as Austria, Bavaria, Spain and until recently France, the Government, in virtue of concordats or ancient privileges, has the right of nomination to some or all of the vacant canonries.
Officials of the chapter

At the head of the chapter as a corporate body, is a president who, as before said, is called in different countries by various names, though the prevailing one is that of dean. The duty of this official is to convoke the chapter and preside over it. He is also to see that the canonical statutes are observed in all that relates to capitular meetings and the choir service. The chapter appoints a treasurer, a secretary, and a sacristan. The Council of Trent decreed (Sess. V, Cap. i) that a canon theologian should be constituted in cathedral churches. His office is to explain the Holy Scripture and the dogmas of the Faith, and also to treat questions pertaining to moral theology. A canon penitentiary is likewise to be appointed (Sess. XXIV, cap. viii) with power to hear confessions in the whole diocese. As to other dignitaries or officials of the chapter, there is no uniformity among the various capitular bodies. The Council of Trent approved of this variety (Sess. XXV, cap. vi), and hence the peculiar statutes or customs of each chapter or diocese or country must be examined to know what dignitaries, in addition to those mentioned, form part of the capitular body. Among such other officials may be named the custos, primicerius, portarius, precentor, hospitalarius, eleemosynarius or almoner, and camerarius or chamberlain. Punctator and hebdomadarius are not distinct offices but special functions committed to certain canons.
Other members of the chapter

These are called by the general name of capitulars or canons. The division of such canons into seniors and juniors, residential and forensic, prebendal and semi-prebendal, etc., belongs rather to archæology. The number of simple canons is not fixed by a general law of the Church, and the bishop can, with the consent of his chapter, increase their number, except in cases where the pope has absolutely determined how many canons shall compose a particular chapter. In the latter case no new capitulars can be added except by Apostolic authority. Honorary canons have neither a canonry nor a vote in the chapter, but they are entitled to a stall in the choir. The number of such honorary canons must not exceed that of the titular ones. Leo XIII prescribed in 1894 that a bishop is not to nominate to an honorary canonship a subject of another diocese, without the consent of the chapter and the goodwill of the candidate's own ordinary. The honorary canons who do not belong to the diocese must never be equal to the third part of all the capitulars. In England and Scotland the number of canons is usually ten, and the president is called provost. In Ireland the chapter is presided over by a dean, and besides the canons penitentiary and theologian, there are usually also a number of other dignitaries.
Rights and duties of capitulars

Cathedral canons (capitulars) have precedence, after the bishop or vicar-general, over all the diocesan clergy when they go in procession as a chapter. They have also a certain pre-eminence, so that they may be made judges delegate of the Holy See in preference to the other clergy and to canons of collegiate churches. They also wear certain honorary insignia, as a ring, a cross, a violet soutane, etc., and sometimes even the mitre. Leo XIII decreed in 1894 that canons of minor basilicas in Rome can use such insignia only within their churches, and that canons "outside the city" can employ them only within their dioceses. A capitular has a right to receive his prebend or income from the day of installation. He likewise has a place and vote in the chapter and a stall in the choir. He is obliged to make a profession of faith before the bishop or his vicar at a meeting of the chapter, within two months of his installation. Residence near the cathedral church is required, as his duties are to be performed personally and not by substitutes, except in very rare cases. The conventual Mass is to be assisted at daily by the canons according to their rotation. If the Mass be offered for benefactors, all must be present. Choir service is also of obligation, and the canons must not merely assist but also chant the psalms. Absence is allowed only for a legitimate cause or through dispensation of the proper ecclesiastical authority. They must assit at the deliberations of the chapter and fulfil whatever duties may be imposed upon them by it unless legitimately excused. When the bishop celebrates Mass or takes part in other pontifical functions, the capitulars must assist him according to the form prescribed in the "Ceremonial of Bishops" and the "Roman Pontifical". They are also to accompany the bishop when he goes in procession to the cathedral, and after the service they must go with him to the church door in a body.
Capitular meetings

Chapters, being true ecclesiastical colleges in the strict sense of the word, have all the rights such bodies possess by their nature or by the positive sanction of law. Consequently, they can hold sessions, ordinary or extraordinary, to expedite matters concerning the chapter. By common law, they need no previous approbation of the bishop for such meetings, but the bishop can require that they give him notice of a capitular congregation and of the resolutions approved by it. The convocation of the chapter to consider its own affairs belongs to the dean or provost, except where a particular statute intervenes. The bishop convokes it when it is to treat of diocesan matters. All the canons present in the city are to be called to meetings of the chapter. At times even those absent are to be summoned, as for the election of a prelate, the reception of new canons, etc. The meeting is to be held at the prescribed time and place. Two-thirds of the capitulars form a quorum, according to the regulations of some chapters; canon law requires only a majority. Business is to be transacted by a general and public deliberation, followed by a vote. This vote need not be unanimous, unless the subject matter refers to the canons as individuals. The chapter has authority to make laws for itself, provided they be not contrary to the general canon law. These statutes, according to the prevailing discipline, must be approved by the bishop. In particular cases, where there is a tie vote, the dean or bishop has the casting vote or a double suffrage. Like every other ecclesiastical corporation, the chapter has the right of possessing and administering the property over which it has the dominion. Consequently the chapter can appoint its own officials to administer its possessions, even without the ordinary's approbation. The supreme administrator of capitular property, as the dean or other dignitary, is to be determined by local statutes or customs.
Chapters sede plenâ

As the chapter constitutes the diocesan senate, the bishop is obliged to ask its counsel or consent for various administrative acts. Where consent is required, the bishop cannot validly proceed against the will of the capitulars. Where only counsel is prescribed, the ordinary fulfills his obligation by asking their advice, but he is not constrained to follow it. In some cases defined by law, the acts of the bishop are null, if the counsel of the chapter be not asked. The consent of the chapter is requisite in general for all matters of grave importance, especially such as place a perpetual obligation on the diocese or on property, unless the bishop is allowed greater liberty either by custom or Apostolic delegation. In particular, the consent of the capitulars is necessary for buying, selling, or alienating ecclesiastical property; for mortgaging church property, for uniting, dividing, or suppressing spiritual benefices or parishes; for erecting new canonries, even honorary ones; for collating to benefices, if the right be held by the chapter conjointly with the bishop; for nominating prosynodal examiners; for assuming a temporary coadjutor for the bishop; for committing parish churches to regulars; for imposing new taxes or contributions on the diocese; for measures that would be prejudicial to the chapter or diocese, because the chapter is the lawful defendant of diocesan rights. The counsel of the chapter is to be asked for the making and promulgating of new diocesan laws whether composed in the synod or out of it; for correcting and punishing the faults of clerics; for the building of new monasteries; for administrative acts of some moment, as in appointments to parishes and other diocesan business. For the matters cited, the consent or counsel of the chapter is required by the bishop when he is exercising his ordinary jurisdiction. In cases, however, where he acts as delegate of the Holy See, no such counsel or consent need be asked. The chapter on its side is obliged to show due obedience to the bishop in the observance and execution of his lawful commands, in submitting to his canonical visitation, and in obeying his just judgment in judicial causes.
Chapters sede impeditâ

When on account of some physical or canonical impediment, the bishop cannot govern his diocese, the episcopal administration does not pass to the chapter, but it becomes its duty to notify the pope, who alone appoints the administrator of a diocese, except in certain cases determined by law, when the chapter can conduct diocesan affairs; as when the bishop has been imprisoned by heretics or pagans; when he is excommunicated or suspended; when the vicar-general dies and the bishop is far away. In the above exceptional cases the chapter may administer the diocese until the Holy See provides otherwise.
Chapters sede vacante

On the death of the bishop, the chapter succeeds to his ordinary and customary jurisdiction in spirituals and temporals, except to those which he had by virtue of Sacred orders, or by special privilege, or by special delegation of the Holy See. The faculties delegated to bishops as delegates of the Apostolic See by the Council of Trent also pass to the chapter. Within eight days of the bishop's death, the chapter must elect a vicar capitular to whom the whole administration of the diocese must be committed (see VICAR CAPITULAR), and the chapter can reserve no jurisdiction to itself. Lastly, it nominates the new bishop.
Cathedral chapters in missionary countries

In England, Ireland, Scotland, Holland, and some other countries, cathedral chapters have been erected. As the circumstances of these countries are different from those in lands where the Church is canonically established, the Holy See has made some changes in the common law governing cathedral chapters. The canons are dispensed from residence near the cathedral church, and may be parish priests or missionaries dispersed through the diocese. They are likewise dispensed from the daily chanting of the Divine Office in choir. It is generally prescribed, however, that when the capitulars come to the cathedral for their monthly meetings, they must recite Terce together and assist at a conventual Mass. As a general rule the rights and offices of canons in missionary countries are the same as those already enumerated for places where canonical law is in full force. The Bishop is therefore to ask their counsel or consent, as the case may be, in matters referring to diocesan administration and when the episcopal see is vacant, the chapter succeeds to the deceased bishop and elects a vicar capitular. In the United States, cathedral chapters have not as yet been constituted. In 1883 Propaganda consulted the American bishops on the advisability of erecting them, but the prelates judged that the time was not yet opportune.

Vicar Capitular
The administrator of a vacant diocese, elected by a cathedral chapter. On the death of a bishop, the canons of a cathedral chapter (where such exists) inherit the episcopal jurisdiction as a body corporate. Within eight days of the vacancy of the see, however, they must meet and constitute a vicar capitular (Conc. Trid., Sess. XXIV, c. xvi, de ref.). If they neglect this duty, the right passes to the metropolitan, or, in case the metropolitan see is in question, to the senior suffragan bishop, or, when the diocese is exempt, to the nearest bishop. In constituting a vicar capitular, a strict form of election need not be followed; but if suffrages are cast, they should be secret, and no one may vote for himself. The vicar chosen should be a doctor of licentiate in canon law if possible, and though a canon is commonly to be chosen yet this is not required for validity.

On his election the vicar succeeds to all the ordinary episcopal jurisdiction that the chapter had inherited, nor can the chapter reserve any part of the jurisdiction to itself, nor constitute only a temporary vicar, nor remove him. Faculties which are committed to bishops by the Holy See for a term of years, pass also to the vicar capitular (S. Off., 22 Apr., 1898), in which are included the powers usually granted for dealing with a certain number of cases (S. Off., 3 May, 1899). Canonists usually hold that perpetual delegations to ordinaries, sanctioned by the Council of Trent, pass likewise to the vicar capitular. Faculties, however, which had been granted to the bishop personally are not extended to the vicar. There are, nevertheless, some limitations on the power of a vicar capitular, even as regards ordinary episcopal jurisdiction. Thus, he may not convoke a synod or visit the diocese unless a year has elapsed since these offices were performed. He may not grant indulgences. He should not undertake any new work or engagements that might prejudice the action of the in-coming bishop. Hence, during the first year of vacancy, he can promote to sacred orders only those who are obliged to receive that dignity through possession of a benefice. The vicar cannot grant the benefices of free collation, nor may he suppress them and unite them to the cathedral chapter. He may not alienate the goods of the cathedral church or of the episcopal mensa. He can, however, grant permission for the alienation of the goods of inferior churches. He can neither begin nor pursue a judicial process concerning the goods or rights of the cathedral church. The vicar cannot give permission for the erection of a new monastery or a new confraternity (S.C. Ind., 23 Nov., 1878). Canonists usually declare that a vicar capitula can receive extern clerics into his diocese, but deny that he can excardinate the home clergy. If the vicar is in episcopal orders, he can perform all that belongs to the ministry of consecration; otherwise he may invite a bishop from another diocese to exercise such functions. If the vicar die or resign, the chapter must elect another within eight days, but the newly-elect must not be one who has already received the nomination to the vacant see. In case the removal of the vicar capitular becomes necessary, this may be done only by the Holy See. The office of a vicar capitular ceases when the bishop who has been promoted to the diocese presents his letters of appointment to his cathedral chapter. The new bishop has the right of demanding an account from the chapter and vicar capitular of all their acts of administration, and of punishing any dereliction of duty.

Canons and Canonesses Regular
(Also called REGULAR CLERICS, RELIGIOUS CLERICS, CLERIC-CANONS, AUGUSTINIAN CANONS, BLACK CANONS, MONXCANONS).

According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is essentially a religious cleric, or, as the same doctor aptly expresses it: "The Order of Canons Regular is necessarily constituted by religious clerics, because they are essentially destined to those works which relate to the Divine mysteries, whereas it is not so with the monastic Orders." (II-II:189:8 ad 2um, and II-II:184:8). We have then here what constitutes a canon regular and what distinguishes him from a monk. The clerical state is essential to the Order of Canons Regular, whereas it is only accidental to the Monastic Order. Hence Erasmus, himself a canon regular, declared that the canons regular are a quid medium between the monks and the secular clergy. And for the same reason Nigellus Vireker, a Benedictine monk of Canterbury in the twelfth century, contrasts the life of canons regular, as he know them, with that of his own brethren and the Cistercians, pointing out the advantages of the former. The canons, he tells us, were spared the long choral duties, the sharp reproofs, the stern discipline of the Black Monks, and were not bound to the Spartan simplicity of vesture and diet of the field-working Cisterians ("Speculum Stultorum", Rolls Series: "The Anglo-Latin Satirical poets of the Twelfth Century"). The "Llanthony Chronicler" relates how the first founders of his famous abbey, having consulted among themselves, decided to become canons regular, first, because on account of the charity they were well liked by all, and then because they were satisfied with a modest manner of living, their habit, though clean, being decent, neither too coarse, nor too rich. In this moderation of life we may say that canons regular follow the example of their lawgiver, St. Augustine, of whom St. Possidius, his biographer, relates that his habit, his furniture, his clothes were always decent, neither too showy nor too humble and shabby.

The spirit of the canonical order is thus quaintly but clearly explained in the "Observances in Use at the Augustinian Priory at Barnwell, Cambridge," lately edited with a translation by F.W. Clarke:

    The road along which Canons Regular walk in order to reach the heavenly Jerusalem is the rule of Blessed Augustine. Further lest Canons Regular should wander away from the rule, there are given to them, in addition, observances in accordance with it handed down from remote ages and approved among holy fathers in all quarters of the world. This rule is simple and easy, so that unlearned men and children can walk in it without stumbling. On the other hand it is deep and lofty, so that the wise and strong can find in it matter for abundant and perfect contemplation. An elephant can swim in it and a lamb can walk in it safely. As a lofty tower surrounded on all sides by walls makes the soldiers who garrison it safe, fearless, and impregnable, so the rule of Blessed Augustine, fortified on all sides by observances in accordance with it, makes its soldiers, that is, Canon Regular, undismayed at the attacks, safe and invincible.

To explain further the nature and distinctive spirit of the canonical order, we may say, with St. Augustine, that a canon regular professes two things, "sanctitatem et clericatum". He lives in community, he leads the life of a religious, he sings the praises of God by the daily recitation of the Divine Office in choir; but at the same time, at the bidding of his superiors, he is prepared to follow the example of the Apostles by preaching, teaching, and the administration of the sacraments, or by giving hospitality to pilgrims and travellers, and tending the sick. And so we find that Pope Paschal II, in his Bull addressed in 1118 to the prior and community at Colchester, tells them that their order has always been devoted to preaching, hearing confessions, and baptizing, and ready to accept the care of such parishes and public chapels as might be entrusted to their charge. This has been pointed out by other popes, as also by St. Ives of Chartres, and by Cancellieri, who, quoting the authority of an ancient writer to the effect that the clerics living in common in the Lateran Basilica observed the regulations introduced there by Pope Gelasius, says that "their work was the administration of the sacraments and the offering of prayer." It is the same now. From one monastery alone, that of St. Florian, in Austria, some forty parishes are served, and those same canons who gave hospitality on the Great St. Bernard serve a number of parishes in the Canton Valais. The public prayer, or liturgical office, is celebrated with all the splendour befitting God's honour and His house. But the canons regular do not confine themselves exclusively to canonical functions. Nothing, unless incompatible with the duty of clerics is rejected. To this day, as already mentioned, they give hospitality to pilgrims and travelers on the Great St. Bernard and on the Simplon, and in former times the hospitals of St. Bartholomew's Smithfield, in London, of S. Spirito, in Rome, of Lochleven, Monymusk, and St. Andrew's, in Scotland, and others like them, were all served by canons regular. In fact, many congregations of canons made it their chief end to work among the poor, the lepers, the insane, and the infirm. The clerics established by St. Patrick in Ireland had a Guest House for pilgrims and the sick whom they tended by day and by night. And the rule given by Chrodegang to this canons enjoined that a hospital should be near their house that they might tend the sick. The Council of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) also ordains the erection of a hospital for pilgrims over which a canon regular is to preside.

The essential and characteristic habit of canons regular is the rochet. With regard to the other parts, their dress, as a general rule, is that of other clergy, although some have added a scapular. By most the rochet is worn as part of their daily dress, though sometimes reduced to a small linen band hanging from the shoulders in front and behind. It is now so worn in Austria, on the Great St. Bernard, and at Aosta. As to the colour of the dress there is no fixed rule, the custom and traditions of the various Congregations may be observed. The general colour seems to have been white as now worn by the Lateran Congregation. A question having been raised as to the proper habit of a canon regular, when named bishop, it was settled by a Brief of Leo X. A long dissertation on the dress of the canons regular was presented to the pope by jurisconsult, Zaccaria Ferreri, who maintained that, with the exception of the rochet, the canons regular, like the secular clergy, had no fixed dress. It may be interesting to note that, in this dissertation on the authority of the "Most Reverend Lord Cardinal of England, and many other Prelates, and the English Ambassador", the author says, "in England the Canons Regular wore violet like the other clergy." In the Constitutions given by Cardinal Wolsey to canons regular mention is also made of this variety of habit.
Origin

Having thus explained what a canon regular is, and what the spirit and work of the canonical order are, it will be easier now to answer such questions as these:

    Who was the founder of the canons regular?
    Whence do they drive their origin?
    When and where were they first known?

Various and contradictory opinions have been expressed to answer these and similar questions. There have been some writers who, like the famous Cistercian abbot, Joachim, Coriolanus, Marquez, and others held that the canonical order began about 1100. According to others the order dates from the time of Charlemagne, who expressed the wish that all the clergy should be either monks or canons living in common, as prescribed by the Council of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 789, and Mainz, in 813. The great Bishop of Hippo is also regarded by some as the founder of the canonical institute. All these opinions are set aside by many other writers, and especially by the historians of the order, who almost unanimously trace back the origin of the canons regular much farther in antiquity. Their institute, they maintain, was founded by Christ Himself, and dates from the time of the Apostles. These writers and historians begin by saying that, although it be true that there was a great revival, or general reformation and spreading of the order in the twelfth century, in France and elsewhere through the zeal of Ives, Bishop of Chartres, in Italy through the newly-founded congregation of Blessed Peter de Honestis, and elsewhere through the congregation of Sts. Rufus, yet this does not imply that the order took its origin at that epoch, but rather — since it needed reforming — that it had already existed for some time. History, in fact, tells us that about the eleventh century the regular or canonical life hitherto observed almost everywhere by the clergy was given up in many churches, and thus a distinction was made between the clerics who lived in separate houses and those who still preserved the old discipline, living under rule and having all things in common. The former were called canonici saeculares, the latter canonici regulares, by which name they have been known ever since. It is also true that in the year 763 Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz, assembled the clergy of his cathedral around him, led with them a community life, and gave them a rule taken from the statutes of ancient orders and canons, a discipline also recommended shortly after by the Councils of Aix-la-Chapelle and Mainz; but in doing this he was only following the example of St. Augustine, who had introduced among his own clergy the manner of life which he had seen practiced at Milan. And that is why the member so the canonical order regard St. Augustine not as their founder, but only as their reformer, or lawgiver; because to the clergy who lived with him he had given certain special regulations, which were in course of time adopted by almost all the canons regular, who were on that account called "Canons Regular of St. Augustine."

Those who believe in the Apostolic origin of the canonical institute, support their contention by the authority of popes, theologians, and church historians. There is abundant evidence, they say that Christ Himslef instituted a perfect religious state, and that it was embraced by the Apostles and many of their disciples from the very beginning of the Church. It is also certain that from the time of the Apostles there have always been in the Church clerics who, following the example of the primitive Christians, living "secundum regulam sub sanctis Apostolis constitutam" (according to the Apostolic Rule), had all things in common. Eusebius, the historian, relates that St. Mark, the disciple of St. Peter, established this discipline at Alexandria, as did St. Crescentius in Gaul, St. Saturninus in Spain, and St. Maternus in Germany. We know that St. Eusebius introduced it at Vercelli in Italy, and St. Amborse at Milan. Pope Urban I (A.D. 227), Paschal II (1099), Benedict XII (1334), Eugenius IV (1431), Sixtus V, and Pius V in their various Letters and bulls, are quoted by the historians of the order, to prove distinctly that St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, only restored, or caused to reflourish, the order of canons regular, which was first instituted by the Apostles. St. Antoninus, Vincent of Beauvais, Sigebert, Peter of Cluny, Fagnani, and many others tell us that the canonical order traces back its origin to the earliest ages of the Church. It will suffice to give here the authority of Francisco Suárez, who sums up the case very clearly. After having stated that the Apostles taught by Christ Himslef formed the first order of clerics, and that the order did not perish with the Apostles, but was preserved by continuous succession in their disciples, as proved by letters of Pope St. Clement and urban I (though these letters are Pseudo-Isidorian in character), the writer continues:

    We read in the Life of St. Augustine that when he was made priest, he instituted a monastery within the church and began to live with the servants of God according to the manner and rules constituted by the holy Apostles. Many therefore suppose that the Order of Regular Clerics, or Canons Regular, was not instituted by St. Augustine, but was either reformed by him or introduced by him into Africa and furnished with a special rule. Pius IV maintains that the Order of Regular Clerics was instituted by the Apostles, and this Benedict XII confirms in his preface to the Constitutions of the Canons Regular. There is no question as regards the continuance of this state from the time of St. Augustine to this time, although with great variety as far as various institutes are concerned.

To this we may add that when a controversy arose between the Benedictine monks and the canons regular with regard to precedence, the question was settled by Pius V in favour of the canons, on account of their Apostolic origin. We may then conclude with the words of Cardinal Pie, who, addressing the canons regular of the Lateran Congregation, whom he had established at Beauchene in his diocese, says:

    These that are clothed in white robes, who are they, and whence come they come, I will tell you. Their origin is nothing else but the society and the common life of Jesus and His Apostles, the original model of community life between the bishop and his clergy. On that account they chiefly come from Hippo and from the home of Augustine, who has given them a Rule, which they still glory to observe.

The name Austin (or Augustinian) Canons is commonly used instead of Canons Regular, and there are some who think that Austin Canons are so styled because they were instituted by St. Augustine. This is a wrong notion. St. Augustine did not found the order of canons regular, not even those who are called Austin Canons. There were canons regular before St. Augustine. The various authorities quoted in this article prove it. All St. Austin did was to induce his clergy to live secundum regulam sub sanctis Apostolis constitutam, which he had seen practised at Milan, adding to the Apostolic Rule hitherto observed by clerics living in common, some regulations, afterwards called the "Rule of St. Augustine." Or, in the words of Pope Paschal II in a Bull quoted by Pennott, "Vitæ regularis propositum in primitiva ecclesia cognoscitur ab Apostolis institutum quam B. Augustinus tam gratanter amplexus est ut eam regulis informaret" (A regular mode of life is recognized in the Early Church as instituted by the Apostles, and adopted earnestly by Blessed Augustine, who provided it with new regulations) — Hist. Tripart., Lib. II, c. iv, 4. These regulations which St. Austin had given to the clerics who lived with him soon spread and were adopted by other religious communities of canons regular in Italy, in France, and elsewhere. When, in and after the eleventh century, the various congregations of canons regular were formed, and adopted the Rule of St. Augustine, they were usually called Canonici Regulares Ordinis S. Augustini Congregationis, and in England Austin Canons, or Black Canons. but there have always been canons regular who never adopted the Rule of St. Augustine. Giraldus Cambrenisis mentions some in his day in England. In a word, canons regular may be considered as the genus, and Austin Canons as the species; or we may say that all Austin Canons are canons regular, but not all canons regular are Austin canons.

If further proofs of the Apostolic origin of the canonical order are desired, many may be found in the work of Abbot Ceasare Benvenuti (see bibliography at end of this article), who century by century, from councils, Fathers, and other ecclesiastical sources, proves that from the first to the twelfth century there had always been clerics living in common according to the example of the Apostles. It will be enough to cite here the authority of Döllinger who, after saying that from the time of the Apostles there have been in the Church, virgins, laymen, and ecclesiastics named ascetics, continues:

    At Vercelli the holy Bp. Eusebius introduced the severe discipline of the Oriental monks among his clergy both by word and example. Before the gat of Milan was a cloister for monks under the protection of St. Ambrose. . .St. Augustine, when a priest, founded a cloister at Hippo, in which with other clerics he lived in humility and community of goods. When Bishop his episcopal residence was converted into a cloister for ecclesiastics. (Eccl. History, tr. by the Rev. E. Cox, II, 270).

To this again may be added, among many others, the words of Benedict XII, Eugenius IV, Pius IV, and Pius V, in their bulls, all asserting almost in as many words, what has been here said. The following words, taken from the Martyrologium for canons regular and approved by the Congregation of Sacred Rites, will suffice for the purpose:

    Ordo Canonicorum Regularium, qui in primaevis Ecclesiae saeculis Clerici nominabantur utque ait S. Pius V. in Bullâ (Cum ex ordinum 14 Kal. Jan., 1570): 'ab Apostolis originem traxerunt, quique ab Augustiono eorum Reformatore iterum per reformationis viam mundo geniti fuere', per universum orbem diffusus innumerabilium SS. agmine fulget.

    (The order of canons regular, who in the early ages of the Church were called clerics, and who, as St. Pius V says in the Bull Cum ex ordinum, 1570, derived their origin from the Apostles, and who later were born anew to the world through a process of reformation, by their reformer, Augustine, being spread throughout the universe, are renowned for an army of innumerable saints).

Development

This rule, which, in the words of Giraldus Cambrensis, happily joins the canonical and clerical life together, was soon adopted by many prelates, not only in Africa, but elsewhere also. After the death of the holy Doctor, it was carried into Italy and France by his disciples. One of them, Pope Gelasius, about the year 492, re-established the regular life in the Lateran Basilica. From St. John Lateran (the Mother and Mistress of all Churches) the reform spread till at length the Rule was universally adopted by almost all the canons regular. It was in the same Lateran Basilica, tradition tells us, that St. Patrick, the future Apostle of Ireland, professed the canonical institute which he afterwards introduced with the Christian Faith, into his own country. At the voice of the great apostle the Irish nation not only embraced Christianity, but many also, following his example, embraced the canonical life. On the authority of Sir James Ware, Canon Burke (Life and Labours of St. Augustine) asserts that "all the monasteries founded in Ireland by St. Patrick, were for canons regular." This opinion is also maintained by Allemande, who affirms (Hist. monastique de l'Irlande) that "the Regular Canons of St. Augustine were so early or considerable in Ireland before the general suppression of monasteries, that the number of houses they are said to have had seems incredible. They alone possessed, or had been master of, as many houses as all the other orders together, and almost all the chapters of the cathedral and collegiate churches in Ireland consisted of canons regular." To these authorities we might add that of the Rev. R. Butler, who, in his notes to the "Registrum Omnium Sanctorum", expressly affirms that the "old foundations in Ireland were exclusively for Canons." We might also quote the words of Bishop Thomas de Burgo, who, in his "Hibernia Dominicana", does not hesitate to say that St. Patrick was a canon regular, and that, having preached the Christian Faith in Ireland, he established there many monasteries of the canonical institute. After this no one will think that the same writer exaggerates when he appends to his work a catalogue of 231 monasteries which at some time or other belonged to canons and canonesses regular. The Irish clerics became the most learned scholars in Europe, Ireland's seats of learning, monasteries, nunneries, and charitable institutions were unsurpassed either in number or excellence by those of any nation in the world. The Abbot or Priors of Christ Church and All Hallows in Dublin, of Connell, Kells, Athessel, Killagh, Newton, and Raphoe had seats in Parliament.

There seems very little doubt that the canonical institute was introduced into Scotland by St. Columba. This saint, called "monasteriorum pater et fundator," in reference to the numerous churches and monasteries built either by him or by his disciples in Ireland and Scotland, was formed to the religious life in the monastery of St. Finnian. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, anno 565, relates that Columba, Masspreost (Mass-Priest), "came to the Picts to convert them to Christ", or, as another manuscript says: "This year, 565, Columba the Messa-preost, came from the parts of the Scots (Ireland) to the Britons to teach the Picts, and built a monastery in the island of Hy." To what order this monastery, founded by Columba, belonged, we may judge from other monasteries built by the saint in Ireland and Scotland. As we have already stated, St. Columba was the disciple of St. Finnian, who was a follower of St. Patrick; both then had learned and embraced the regular life which the great Apostle had established in Ireland. Moreover, such writers as Ware, de Burgo, Archdall, Cardinal Moran, Bower, expressly tell us that Columba built monasteries for canons regular in Ireland and Scotland. So, for instance, Ware, in his "Antiquitates Hiberniae", writing of Derry, says: "St. Columba built (this monastery) for Canons Regular in the year 545." This monastery was a filiation of the monastery of SS. Peter and Paul at Armagh — which, according to the same writer, had been founded by "St. Patrick for Canons Regular." Again, tradition places the first landing of the saint on leaving Ireland at Oronsay, and Fordun (Bower) notices the island as "Hornsey, ubi est monasterium nigrorum Canonicorum, quod fundavit S. Columba" (where is the monastery of Black Canons which St. Columba founded). Speaking of the very monastery built by the saint at Hy, another historian, Gervase of Canterbury, in his "Mappa Mundi", informs us that the monastery belonged to the Black Canons.

It may be here the place to mention the opinion of some writers who think that the monasteries established by St. Columba in Scotland were for Culdees. It will be remembered that numerous opinions have been expressed concerning the origin and the institute of the Culdees, some calling them monks, some secular canons and hospitallers, and others going so far as to say that they were Independents, or Dissenters, nay even the forefathers of the modern Freemasons. The present writer, on the other hand, is of opinion that the Culdees originally, and some even to the very end, were nothing else but clerics living in common just as those St. Patrick had established in Ireland and St. Columba had introduced into Scotland.

At the time of the Reformation there were in Scotland at least thirty-four houses of canons regular and one of canonesses. These included six Premonstratensian houses, one Gilbertine, and one of the Order of St. Anthony. The others seem to have been chiefly of the Aroasian Congregation, first introduced into Scotland from Nostall Priory, in England. The chief houses were:

    St. Andrews, the Metropolitan of Scotland, founded by Angus, King of the Picts. The church was at first served by Culdees, but in 1144 Bishop Robert, who had been a canon regular at Scone, established here members of his own community. The prior was mitred and could pontificate. In Parliament he had precedence of all abbots and priors.
    Scone, founded by King Alexander I. Here the Scottish kings were crowned. The stone on which the coronation took place was said to be that on which Jacob rested his head; it is now at Westminster, having been removed by Edward I. Tradition says that the Culdees were at Scone before Alexander brought canons regular from Nostall Priory in 1115.
    Holy Rood, of which King David was the founder, in 1128, for canons regular, in the "vail that lyis to the Eist frae the Castell, quhare now lyis the Cannongait, and which at that time was part of ane gret forest full of hartis, hyndis, toddis and sicklike manner of beistis," as Bellenden, the translator of Bower, expresses it. This famous abbey was burnt down, at the instigation of John Knox, in 1544, but some efforts were made to restore Divine service in the chapel as late as 1688, for in that year Father G. Hay, a Scotch canon regular, of the French congregation, performed there a funeral as he says, "in his habit with surplice and aulmess after the rites of Rome." Next the abbey was the Royal Palace, and we are told that the Scottish kings often went

        Unto the saintly convent, with good monks to dine And quaff to organ music the pleasant cloister wine.

Many of the houses founded by St. Columba remained in possession of the canons till the time of the Reformation. Oronsay and Crusay were of the number.

Much valuable information concerning many of the canonical houses may be found in Fordun's Scoti-Chronicon, written before 1384 (ed. Skene, Edinburgh, 1871-72). As Walter Bower, its continuator and annotator, was a canon regular, and abbot of Inchcolm, he no doubt derived all his materials at firs hand from the archives of the order, and thus many important particulars are related by him concerning the foundations of the houses, their inmates, and particular events.

There are not wanting writers who, on the authority of Jocelin, William of Malmsbury, "Gesta Pontificum", and others, are of opinion that the canonical order was established in Britain by St. Patrick, on his return from Rome to Ireland. Be this as it may, the Saxon conquerors of the country extirpated not only the religious establishments, but almost the very Faith of Christ from the land. The faithful either were obliged to dwell in the fastnesses of Wales or were made slaves. It was in these circumstances that Pope Gregory the Great sent to England St. Augustine with forty clerics, who according to the Bull of Pope Eugenius IV (quoted by Lingard in his Anglo-Saxon Church, I, iv), by which, in 1446, he restored the Lateran Basilica to the canons regular, formed a Canonical Institute. Speaking of the order founded by the Apostle and reformed by the holy Bishop of Hippo, the pope says: "Blessed Gregory commanded St. Augustine, the Bishop of England, to establish it as a new plantation among the nation entrusted to his care and spread it to the utmost distant parts of the West." And William of Coventry, in his Chronicle, A.D. 620, tells us that "Paulinus with twelve clerics was sent by the Pope to help Augustine." In the North also the disciples of St. Columba were preaching the Gospel and establishing the canonical order among the nation they were converting to Christ. The Roman and British clergy amalgamated, and were learn from English historians that most if not all the cathedral and large churches were served by regular clerics or canons regular till the tenth century, when they were replaced by Benedictine monks by royal authority, and sometimes by means even less lawful. Dr. Lingard clearly states that:

    in many of these religious establishments the inmates had been Canons Regular from the beginning. In many they had originally been monks and had converted themselves into Canon, but all considered themselves bound by their rule to reside within the precincts of their monasteries, to meet daily in the church for the performance of divine service, to take their meals in the same hall, and to sleep in the same dormitory.

In fact, this same historian is of opinion that St. Augustine and his companions were clerics living in common. Writing of the clergy in Anglo-Saxon times, Dr. Lingard says:

    The chief resource of the Bishop lay in the Cathedral monastery, where the clergy were carefully instructed in their duties and trained in the exercise of their holy profession. They were distinguished by the name of Canons because the rule which they observed had been founded in accordance with the canons enacted in different councils.

And he adds this explanatory note from the Excerptiones of Egbert:

    Canonen dicimus regulas quas sancti Patres constiturerunt in quibus scriptum est quomodo canonici, id est clerici regulares, vivere debeant.

(By the term canons we designate those rules which the holy Fathers have laid down, in which it has been written how canons (canonici), i.e. regular clerics, ought to live). We have also the fact that in the twelfth century many churches served by secular canons, like Plympton, Twynham, Taunton, Dunnow, Gisburn, were given to canons regular, who, it would seem, were the original owners. This view is confirmed by the authorities of various historians. In his History of the Archbishops (ed. Stubbs, Rolls Series, London, 1876), Diceto tells us that at Dunstan's suggestion King Edgar drove the clerics out of most of the churches of England and placed monks in their stead. In Liber de Hyda we find that canons had been introduced at Winchester by King Ethelred, and that Bishop Grimbald, a zealous reformer of the clergy, had established a community of clerics whose duty it was to perform the Divine Office. Speaking of Ælfric, a monk who had been elected Archbishop of Canterbury, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 995, remarks that when he came to hic cathedral he was received by a community of clerics, when he would have preferred monks.

It would seem, then, that writers like Tanner, the modern editors of Dugdale's Monasticon, and others, who think that the canons regular were introduced into England after the year 1100, or after the coming of William the Conqueror, may have been misled by the fact that it was only after the eleventh century that the canons regular were so styled generally; nevertheless these are the same ecclesiastics, until then commonly called religious or regular clerics. It is also true that, as elsewhere so in England, in the twelfth century there was a great revival in the canonical order on account of various congregations newly found in France, Italy, and the Low countries, and it was some of these new canons that came with the Conqueror; but this does not prove that the canonical life was unknown before. In England alone, from the Conquest to the death of Henry II, no fewer than fifty-four houses were founded where the canons regular were established. Colchester in 1096 was the first, followed ten years later by Holy Trinity in London. In 1100 Ralph Mortimer, by consent of Gerard, Bishop of Hereford, founded a canonical house at Wigmore, and in 1110 another house for Austin Canons was built at Haghmond. At Taunton a colony of secular priests became a monastery of canons regular. Secular canons were also replaced by canons regular at Twynham, Plympton, Waltham, and other places. In the period mentioned there were, among others, the foundations of the Austin houses at Dunmow, Thremhall, Southhampton, Gisburn, newnham in Bedfordshire, Norton in Cheshire, Stone in Staffordshire, Anglesey and Barnwell in Cambridgeshire, Berden in Essex. This was, no doubt, a period of great prosperity for the canonical order in England. But soon evil days came. There was first the Black Plague, and like every other ecclesiastical institution, the canons regular were fairly decimated, and we may say that they never quite recovered. To remedy the evil Cardinal Wolsey thought it expedient to introduce a general reform of the whole canonical order in England. In the capacity of papal delegate, on 19 March, 1519, he issued the Statuta, which were to be observed by all the Austin Canons. These ordinance, as Abbot Gasquet observes, are valuable evidence as to the state of the great Augustinian Order at that time in England. The statutes provide for the union of all the Austin Canons; for the assembly of a general chapter every three years; for various matters concerning obedience, poverty, and the general discipline of the cloister. Special regulations are given for the daily recitation of the Divine Office and singing of Masses. Directions are laid down for the reception and profession of novices, for uniformity in the religious habit, and sending young students to Oxford University. But troubled days soon came over the land, and these statutes, good though they were, could not keep off the evil times. The canonical houses were suppressed, and the religious dispersed, persecuted, little by little disappeared from the land altogether. Yet, in spite of the previous disasters, by Abbot Gasquet's computation ninety-one houses belonging to the canons regular were suppressed or surrendered at the time of the Reformation between 1538 and 1540, with one thousand and eighty-three inmates — namely, Austin Canons, fifty-nine houses and seven hundred and seventy-three canons; Premonstratensians, nineteen houses and one hundred and fifty-one religious. This number of houses and religious does not include the lesser monasteries with an aggregate of one house and five hundred monks and canon, nor the nuns of the various orders estimated at one thousand five hundred and sixty.

The best known canonical houses were: Walsingham, Waltham, St. Mary's Overy, Bolton, St. Bartholomew's Smithfield, Nostall, Bridlington, Bristol, Carlisle, Newbury, Hexham, Lanercost, Bodmin, Colchester, Dunstable, Merton, Kertmele, Llanthony, Plympton, St. Frideswide's at Oxford, Osney.

At Walshingham there was a famous shrine of Our Lady, a model of the Holy House of Nazareth, founded two hundred years before the miraculous removal to Loretto. Erasmus, writing in the sixteenth century, gives a vivid description of the shrine and the canons, its custodians. At Bourne Abbey lived from 1300 to 1340 Robert de Brunne, a canon regular, who had been styled the "Father of the English language." In his monastic seclusion he welded together the diverse dialects, which then divided shire from shire, into the grammatical structure which the language has since retained. Bridlington Priory, where William de Newbridge and several other historians lived, was also sanctified by the life, virtues, and miracles of its holy prior, John de Tweng, the last English saint to be canonized prior to the Reformation. He died in 1379. In 1386 a mandate was issued to collect evidence with a view to canonization. The body was translated in 1405 de mandato Domini papae, and Boniface IX by a Bull, the original of which was found in the Vatican Archives by J.A. Twemlow a few years ago, formally canonized him. The holy prior was a very popular saint in the North of England. A rich shrine had been built over his tomb, from which the people begged Henry VIII to withhold his hand; but all in vain. Lest the people should be reduced in the offering of their money, the shrine was pulled down and destroyed. Sempringham saw the beginning by St. Gilbert, and the wonderful growth of the only pre-Reformation institute of distinctly English origin. Here, too, Peter de Langtoft, the historian, lived and wrote his well-known works. Within the walls of Merton Abbey Thomas of Canterbury, when a youth, received his education and made his profession as a canon regular before he was consecrated archbishop. Chic Priory, whence came William de Corbeil, Archbishop of Canterbury, was renowned for the learning of its religious clerics: "clerical litteraturâ insignes." Thurgarton was the home of that spiritual writer, Walter Hilton, who, about the year 1400, wrote the Scala perfectionis, usually attributed to some Carthusian monk. St. Frideswide's, founded for canons regular at Castle Tower by Robert d'Oiley, and translated to Osney in 1149, became, as Cardinal Newman tells us, "a nursery for secular students, subject to the Chancellor's jurisdiction." At Lilleshall Priory lived John Myrk, the author of Instructions for Parish Priests, a work written in irregular couplets, doubtless that they might be easily committed to memory. It has been edited by the Early English Text Society. The following verses, where Myrk gives excellent and explicit directions for behaviour in church, are a fair sample of the author's style:

    That when they do to Church fare,
    Then bid them leave their many words,
    Their idle speech and nice border (jests)
    And put away all vanity
    And say their Pater Noster and their Ave.
    None in the church stand shall,
    Nor lean to pillar not to wall,
    But fair on knees they shall them set,
    Kneeling down upon the flat,
    And pray God with heart meek
    To give them grace and mercey eke.
    Suffer them to make no bere (noise)
    But aye to be in their prayer.

Some twenty-five years ago the canons regular of the Lateran Congregation returned to this Cornish town where before the Reformation their brethren the Austin Canons had a beautiful priory in honour of St. Mary and St. Petrock. The new prior is now the residence of the provincial, or visitor, the novitiate-house for England, and the center from which several Missions — as Truro, St. Ives, and Newquay — are served by canons regular.

Although when the storm of persecution came and the religious houses were either seized or surrendered the canons regular were not as faithful to the Church and their profession as might have been desired, yet there were not wanting many who preferred to lay down their lives rather than betray their Faith or give up God's property. Of this number were W. Wold, Prior of Bridlington, the Sub-Prior of Walsingham, with sixteen canons, and Ven. Laurence Vaux. The canonical order is now represented in England by Premonstratensians at Crowley, Manchester, Spalding, and Storrington. The Canons Regular of the Lateran Congregation are at Bodmin, Truro, St. Ives, and Newquay, in Cornwall; at Spettisbury and Swanage, in Dorsetshire; at Stroud Green and Eltham, in London. Besides the occupations of the regular life at home and the public recitation of the Divine Office in choir, they are chiefly employed in serving missions, preaching retreats, supplying for priests who ask their service, and hearing confessions, either as ordinary or extraordinary confessors to convents or other religious communities.

The canonical order must have been introduced into the New World soon after the discovery of that country by Columbus. In fact, tradition tells us that some canons regular from Spain were his companions in one or other of his voyages. Certain it is that at the general chapter of the Lateran Congregation held at Ravenna in 1558, at the request of many Spanish canons, Don Francis de Agala, a professed canon regular from Spain, who for some ten years had already laboured in the newly-discovered country, was created vicar-general in America, with powers to gather into communities all the members of the canonical institute who were then dispersed in those parts, and the obligation to report to the authorities of the order. At present there are canons regular of the Lateran Congregation in the Argentine, and in Canada the Canons of the Immaculate Conception serve different missions. The Premonstratensian Canons also are in different places in South America.
Reforms and congregations

As we have already observed, in the eleventh and twelfth centuries a great reform and revival took place in the canonical order. A great number of congregations of canons regular sprang into existence, each with its own distinctive constitutions, grounded on the Rule of St. Augustine and the statutes which Blessed Peter de Honestis, about the year 1100, gave to his canons at Ravenna, where also he instituted the first sodality, called "The Children of Mary." In order to preserve uniformity and regularity among these numerous congregations Pope Benedict XII, in the year 1339, issued his Bull Ad decorem, which may be rather called a book of constitutions to be observed by all canons regular then existing. By this Bull the order, then extending through Europe and Asia, was divided into twenty-two provinces or kingdoms, among them being Ireland, England, and Scotland, forming each a province. The abbots and visitors were to be convened at a provincial chapter to be held in each province every four years. Visitors were to be elected. Whose duty it was to make a canonical visitation of every house in their respective provinces. Minute regulations are laid down for the daily recitation or singing of the Divine Office in choir, clothings, professions, studies at the universities, expenses and other details in the clerical life, and the general discipline of the canons in the cloister. The Roman Martyrology mentions the existence of more than thirty-three different congregations of canons regular. The historian of the order number no fewer than fifty-four. It is evident that it would be quite impossible to give here even a short account of each in particular, therefore we shall content ourselves with making special mention of a few.

By common consent the Lateran Congregation, officially styled Congregatio SS. Salvatoris Lateranensis, stands first in antiquity and importance. As the title implies, this congregation takes its origin from the Roman Basilica of St. John Lateran, the pope's own cathedral. History, confirmed by the authority of Pontifical Bulls, informs us that Pope Silvester established in the basilica built by the Emperor Constantine clerics living in common after the manner of the Primitive Church. In the year 492, Gelasius, a disciple of St. Augustine, as we have already mentioned, introduced in the patriarchal basilica the regular discipline which he had learnt at Hippo. Pope Gregory the Great, Eugenius II, Sergius III, and Alexander II, all endeavoured to maintain the observance of the regular life established among the clergy of the basilica. As relaxation had crept in, the last name pope, at the request of St. Peter Damian, called some canons from St. Frigidian at Lucca, a house of strict observance. The reform spread, till at length the houses that had embrace it were formed into one large congregation. In the eighteenth century the Lateran Congregation numbered forty-five abbeys and seventy-nine other houses in Italy, besides many affiliated convents of canonesses, monasteries, and colleges of canons regular outside of Italy. The canons regular served the Lateran Basilica from the time they were put in possession till 1391, when secular canons were introduced by Boniface VIII. Several attempts were made to restore the basilica to its original owners, and finally Pope Eugenius IV, in 1445, gave it over to them, an act which was confirmed by Nicholas I. But the arrangement did not last long, and eventually the canons regular were definitively displaced, and the basilica made over to secular canons. All that remains now to the canons regular is the nae they derive from the basilica and a few other privileges, such as precedence over all the other religious orders and the faculty of saying all the Offices which are said by the Lateran Canons in all their Church.

There are at present houses belonging to the Lateran Congregation in Italy, Poland, France, Belgium, England, Spain, and America. The congregation is divided into six provinces, each presided over by a visitor or provincial. The abbot general and procurator general reside in Rome at S. Pietro in Vincoli, where is also the directorate of the confraternity called "The Children of Mary." There are novitiate houses, where young men are prepared for the order, in Italy, Belgium, Spain, England, and Poland. The proper habit of the Lateran Congregation is a white woolen cassock with a linen rochet, which is worn as an essential part of the daily dress. Their work is essentially clerical, the recitation of the Divine Office in church, the administration of the Sacraments, the preaching of the Word. In Italy they have charge of parishes in Rome, Bologna, Genoa, Fano, Gubbio, and elsewhere.

It is the opinion of Hélyot and others that no Canons of the Holy Sepulchre existed before 1114, when some canons regular, who had adopted the Rule of St. Augustine, were brought from the West and introduced into the Holy City by Godfrey of Bouillon. On the other hand, Francisco Suárez, Mauburn, Ferreri, Vanderspeeten, and other, upholding the tradition of the canonical order, maintain that St. James the Less, the first Bishop of Jerusalem, established clerics living in common the in the Holy City, where also, after the time of the crusaders, flourished the Congregation of the Holy Sepulchre. Driven away by the Moslems, the canons sought refuge in Europe, where they had monasteries, in Italy, France, Spain, Poland, and the Low Countries. In these several countries, with the exception of Italy, they continued to exist until the French Revolution. In Italy they seem to have been suppressed by Innocent VIII, who, in 1489, transferred all their property to the Knights of Malta. As regards men, the congregation seems now extinct, but it is still represented by Sepulchrine Canonesses, who have converts in Belgium, Holland, France, Spain, and England. According to Dugdale's Monasticon, the canons had two houses in England, one at Thetford and the other at Warwick. By a Bull, dated 10 January, 1143, to be found in the Bullarium Lateranense, Pope Celestine II confirms the church and the Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre in all the possessions they had received from Godfrey of Bouillon, King Baldwin, and other benefactors. Mention is also made in the Bull of several churches in the Holy Land and in Italy belonging to the canons. Cardinal de Vitry, a canon regular of Oignies, and Cardinal Patriarch of Jerusalem, who had lived in Palestine some years, relates that the canons served, amongst other churches, that of the Holy Sepulchre and those on Mount Sion and on Mount Olivet. The patriarch was also Abbot of the Holy Sepulchre, and was elected by the canons regular.

In the year 1109 the famous scholar and teacher, William de Champeaux, formerly Archdeacon of Paris, and afterwards a canon regular, opened, at the request of his disciples, in his monastery of St. Victor near the city, a school which, owing to the great reputation of the master for learning, soon drew crowds of students from many parts. Founded by a scholar, the monastery of St. Victor for many centuries was a centre of learning and virtue, or, as a French writer (Pasquier) says, "Les lettres y furent toujours logées a bonnes enseignes" (there, letters were always entertained at good inns). Here were formed men like Hugh, Richard, and Adam of St. Victor, all famous for their theological works and their piety. The last named, Adam, had been called by Dom Guéranger "the greatest poet of the Middle Ages." It was Adam who, among his beautiful liturgical hymns composed three admirable proses in honour of St. Thomas of Canterbury, beginning "Gaude Sion et latare", "Aquas plenas amaritudine", "Pia Mater plangat Ecclesia". The pious composer writes very feelingly of the holy martyr, whom he had heard and seen at St. Victor only sixteen months before his martyrdom. The archbishop, while at Paris to thank the king for his protection, wished also to visit the monastery of St. Victor, where at the time lived the saintly Richard. This visit took place on the octave of the Feast of St. Augustine, and the chronicler relates how the future martyr was joyously received by the community and was introduced into the chapter room, where he made an address to the brethren from the text, "In pace factus est locus" (Psalm 75). This visit and conference of their holy brother (for it must be remembered that St. Thomas had made his profession as a canon regular) made a great impression, we are told, on all who were present, and they remembered it when they shortly after heard of his cruel death.

So great was the reputation of the monastery built by William de champeaus that houses were soon established everywhere after the model of St. Victor's, which was regarded as their mother-house. At the death of Gilduin, the immediate successor of William, who had been made Bishop of Châlons, the Congregation already counted forty-four houses. From this congregation, in 1149, sprang another, that of Sainte Genevieve, which in its turn became very numerous and, reformed as the Gallican Congregation, in the sixteenth century, by a holy man called Charles Faure, had, at the outbreak of the Revolution, no fewer than one hundred abbeys and monasteries in France. Both these congregations became extinct, as far as men are concerned, but the ancient congregation of St. Victor is still represented by a very old community of canonesses at Ronsbrugge, near Ypres, in Belgium. Some years ago the congregation was revived, with some modifications, by the Very Rev. Dom Goea, then Vicar-General of St. Claude in France, under the denomination of Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception. Before their expulsion from France they served the ancient Abbey of St. Anthony in Dauphiné. They have now emigrated to Italy and to Canada. Their habit is a white woollen gown and linen rochet with a black cloak.

The Premonstratensian Congregation was founded at Prémontré, near Laon, in France, by St. Norbert, in the year 1120, and approved by Pope Honorius II, in 1126. According to the spirit of its founder, this congregation unites the active with the contemplative life, the institute embracing in its scope the sanctification of its members and the administration of the sacraments. It grew large even during the lifetime of its founder, and now has charge of many parishes and schools, especially in Austria and Hungary. The Premonstratensians wear a white habit with white cincture. They are governed by an abbot general, vicars, and visitors.

The origin of the Congregation of the Holy Cross appears to be uncertain, although all admit its great antiquity. It has been divided into four chief branches: the Italian, the Bohemian, the Belgian, and the Spanish. Of this last very little is known. The branch once flourishing in Italy, after several attempts at reformation, was finally suppressed by Alexander VII in 1656. In Bohemia there are still some houses of Croisier Canons, as they are called, who, however, seem to be different from the well known Belgian Canons of the Holy Cross, who trace their origin to the time of Innocent III and recognize for their Father Blessed Theodore de Celles, who founded their first house at Huy, near Liège. These Belgian Croisier Canons have a great affinity with the Dominicans. They follow the Rule of St. Augustine, and their contitutions are mainly those compiled for the Dominican Order by Raymond of Pennafort. Besides the usual duties of canons in the church, they are engaged in preaching, administering the sacraments, and teaching. Formerly they had houses in Belgium, Holland, Germany, France, England, Ireland, and Scotland. Till some years ago they served missions in North America. At present they have five monasteries in Belgium, of which St. Agatha is considered the mother-house. To these Croisier Canons belongs the privilege, granted to them by Leo X, and confirmed by Leo XIII, of blessing beads with an indulgence of 500 days. Their habit was formerly black, but is now a white soutane with a black scapular and a cross, white and black on the breast. In choir they wear in summer the rochet with a black almuce.

To St. Gilbert of Sempringham is due the honour of founding the only religious order of distinctly English origin. Having completed his studies in England and in France, he returned to the Diocese of Lincoln, where he began to labour with great zeal for the salvation of souls, becoming a canon regular in the monastery of Bridlington. But finding that the discipline of the order was not strictly observed, he conceived, in 1148, the idea of introducing a reform in those regions. After much prayer, thought, and taking advice from holy men, he came to the conclusion that it was necessary to establish a new congregation, composed of both men and women, who should live under the same roof, though of course separated. This idea he put into execution, giving the rule of St. Benedict to the woman and that of canons regular to the men, with special and carefully elaborated constitutions for both. The Gilbertine Congregation spread especially in the North of England, and as already stated, at the time of the general dissolution it had twenty houses and one hundred and fifty-one religious. At the temporary University of Stamford, Sempringham Hall, founded by Robert Lutrell in 1292, was especially for the students of the Gilbertine Congregation.

The canons regular, usually called monks, whom visitors find serving at the Hospice on the Great St. Bernard, belong to the Congregation of St. Augustine, St. Bernard, and St. Nicholas, as it is officially called. They were established on this famous pass of the Alps by Bernard of Menthon, a canon regular of Aosta, about the year 969, according to some, or later, according to others. The religious institute in such a place was only meant by the founder for the convenience of pilgrims and travellers who cross the Alps at a point always full of dangers. The hospice, the canons, their work are too well known to need more than a short mention here. Besides lay brothers and servants, thee are always at the hospice about fifteen canons, who come from Martigny, their mother-house, where also resides the superior general of the congregation. Some canons have charge of the hospice on the Simpion Pass, and a certain number of parishes in the Canton Valais are served by canons of the same congregation.

The origin of the Windesheim Congregation is due to Gerard Groot, a zealous preacher and reformer of the fourteenth century, at Deventer in the Low Countries. Touched by his preaching and example, many poor clerical students gathered around him and, under his direction, "putting together whatever they earned week by week, began to live in common." Such was the beginning of the institute known as that of the "Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life". This institution spread rapidly, and in short time nearly every town in Holland and the adjacent countries contained one or more houses of "The New Devotion" as it was then called. But difficulties were not wanting. The members of "The New Devotion" were not bound together by any vows, and the institute had received no formal approval from the ecclesiastical authorities. Groot foresaw that the only safeguard for the continuance of the new institute was to affiliate it in some way to some great religious order already approved by the Church, to the authority of which the devout brethren and sisters might look for guidance and protection. Having heard of the famous Blessed John Ruysbrock, prior of a house of canons regular at Groendael near Brussels, he went to visit and consult him. Deeply edified by what he saw and heard there, Gerard Groot resolved to place this new institute under the spiritual guidance of the canons regular. The execution of tis resolve was left by Gerard Groot, at his death, to his beloved disciple, Florentius Radwyn. A beginning was soon made, and the foundation of the first house laid at Windersheim, near Zwolle. This became the mother-house of the famous congregation, which, only sixty years after the death of Groot, possessed in Belgium alone more than eighty well-organized monasteries, some of which, according to the chronicler John Buschius, who had visited them all, contained as many as a hundred, or even two hundred, inmates. The congregation continued in its primitive fervour until the devastations of the Reformers drove it from its native soil, and it was at last utterly destroyed during the French Revolution. To this double institute the Church owes many pious and learned men — as Raymond Jordan, called Idiota, John Ruysbrock, Mauburn, Garetius, Latomus, and Erasmus. Some, like St. John Ostervick, canonized by Pius IX, shed their blood rather than deny their Faith. Chief among these learned and holy men stands Thomas à Kempis, when still a youth joined the institute, and knew the saintly Floretius and the first founders of the congregation.

Although the canonical order possessed so many houses in Ireland before the dissolution by Henry VIII; yet, on account of the persecution, little by little it appears to have languished, and by 1620 to have been nearly extinct; it somewhat revived, however, for canons regular were once more to be found in the country not long after this. It is not improbable that at the outbreak of the persecution, like many members of other religious orders, some of the Irish canons may have retired to foreign monasteries and maintained a quasi-independent existence, and have been joined by others of their compatriots who were desirous of entering the canonical institute. In 1645 Dom Thaddeus O'Conel was butchered at Sligo by the Scotch Puritans together with the Archbishop of Tuam, Malachy O'Quechly. At the commencement of 1646 the canons were sufficiently numerous to be formed by Innocent X into a separate congregation, that of St. Patrick, and this congregation, as the same pope declared, inherited all the rights, privileges, and possessions of the old Irish canons. In the year 1698 the Irish Congregation, by a Bull of Innocent XII, was affiliated and aggregated to the Lateran Congregation. From the moment the union was made the two congregations formed but one, and the members of each enjoyed all the rights and privileges of the other. The constitutions of the Lateran Congregation were adopted with some little modification by the Irish. In 1703 Dom Milerius Burke, Abbot of St. Thomas, Dublin, was appointed by the abbot general, Clappini, with the approval of Clement XI, vicar-general in the three kingdoms. In 1735 the Irish canons were claiming before the Congregation of Propoganda their right to several churches, parishes, and houses. The cause was settled in their favour, but there were many difficulties, and they could get possession of only a few. In the "Spicilegium Ossoriense" (III, 148) we find that Henry O'Kelly, a canon regular, obtained from Pope Benedict XIII letters in virtue of which he not only called himself Abbot of St. Thomas, Dublin, but also claimed the parochial rights over a great part of the city, without any dependence upon the metropolitan. The last canon of the Irish Congregation died towards the beginning of the nineteenth century. But the Irish Congregation having been united, as we have stated, with the Lateran, all its rights and privileges still survive in the last-named.

The Austrian-Congregation, formed in 1907, is composed of the various ancient monasteries, abbeys, and collegiate churches of canons regular in Austria. These are St. Florian, Klosterneuburg, Reichersburg, Voran, Neustift. The president of this new congregation is the Abbot of St. Florian.

Other more or less distinct congregations now no longer in existence have been those of Sts. Rufus, founded in 1039, and once flourishing in Dauphine; of Aroasia (Diocese of Arras, in France), founded in 1097; Marbach (1100); of the Holy Redeemer of Bologna, also called the Renana (1136), now united to the Lateran Congregation; of the Holy Spirit in Sassia (1198); of St. George in Alga, at Venice (1404); of Our Saviour in Lorraine, reformed in 1628 by St. Peter Fourier.
Canonesses regular

To most religious orders and congregation of men convents of nuns are related, following the same rules and constitutions. There are canonesses regular, as well as canons regular. The Apostolic origin is common to both. As Francisco Suárez says, with regard to origin and antiquity the same is to be said of orders of women both in general and in particular as of orders of men. The one generally began with the other. St. Basil in his rules addresses both men and women. And St. Augustine founded his first monastery for women in Africa at Tagaste. Most, if not all, of the congregations which go to form the canonical order had, or still have, a correlative congregation for women. In Ireland St. Patrick instituted canons regular, and St. Bridget was the first of numberless canonesses. The monasteries of the Gilbertine Congregation were nearly always double, for men and women. As with the canons, so also among the canonesses, discipline and love of community life now flourished now languished, so that in the tenth and eleventh centuries many of them became canonicae saeclulares and though living in the same house, no longer cherished the spirit of religious poverty or kept a common table.

On the other hand many communities of canonesses willingly took the name and the rule of life laid down for the congregations of regular canons. There still exist in Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, Holland, England, Germany, Africa, America, nuns and convents belonging to the Lateran or to some other congregation of canons regular. The contemplative life is represented by such convents as Newton Abbey in England, Sta. Pudenziana at Rome, Sta. Maria di Passione at Genoa, Hernani in Spain, St. Trudo at Bruges. The Hospitalarians were till lately well represented in France with convents of canonesses at Paris, Reims, Laon, Soissons, and elsewhere.

Occupied in the education of children, there are besides some of the ancient convents of canonesses of various congregations, the canonesses of the Congregation of Notre Dame, instituted in 1597 at Mattaincourt, in Lorraine, by St. Peter Fourier. This congregation, whose object is the gratuitous education of poor girls, spread rapidly in France and Italy. There are now convents of Notre Dame in France, Belgium, Holland, Austria, Germany, Italy, and Africa. In France alone, until the persecution of 1907, they had some thirty flourishing communities and as many schools for externs and boarders. Driven away from France, some have taken refuge in England, like those of the famous convent of Les Oiseaux, Paris, who are now at Westgate, and those of Versailles who have settled at Hull. With some modifications the work was soon introduced into the New World in a remarkable way. The canonesses of the convent at Troyes had for some time earnestly desired to carry on their institute in Canada. Circumstances, however, prevented their going, but at their request Margaret Borugeoys, the president, of the confraternity attached to their convent, gladly crossed the ocean. In 1657 she opened a school at Montreal, in which, in accordance with the rules laid down by Peter Fourier, the poor were taught gratuitously. The school was a great success. Margaret returned to France to ask for helpers, and found them among her sister, the Children of Mary of Troyes. Returning to Canada with four fellow-workers, and soon followed by others she opened a school for boarders as well as a day school. In 1676 these pious women were formed into the "Congregation of Notre Dame." Margaret died in 1700 and has since been declared venerable. The work she had transferred to Canada is still flourishing. At her death there were ten houses in the Dominion; there are now more than a hundred spread over the whole of North America under a superior general, who resides at the mother-house, Montreal.

In 1809 Bishop Wittmann founded, in Bavaria, "The Poor Sisters of the Schools of Notre Dame", and institute similar to that founded by St. Peter Fourier. This association is now widespread in Europe and in America, and has done excellent work in the field of education.

There are English canonesses at Bruges, and at Neuilly, near Paris. In England there is a convent of the Holy Sepulchre at New Hall, with a flourishing school, originally at Liège; also a filiation of that at Bruges, at Hayward's heath, with a large school; at Newton Abbey a numerous community, with a colony at Hoddesdon, devoted to the contemplative life and the Perpetual Adoration. This last convent is, as it were, a link with the pre-Reformation canonesses, through Sister Elizabeth Woodford, who was professed at Barnharm, Priory, Bucks, 8 December, 1519. When the convent was suppressed, in 1539, she was received for some time into the household of Saint Thomas More. Later on she went to the Low Countries and was received into the convent of canonesses regular at St. Ursula's, Louvain, of the Windersheim Congregation. So many English ladies, daughters and sisters of martyrs, like Ann Clitheroe, Margaret Clement, Eleanor and Margaret Garnet, followed her that, in 1609, they formed an English community, St. Monica's, Louvain. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, this community of English canonesses returned to England, first to Spettisbury, afterwards to their present home at Newton Abbey. The chronicles of this ancient convent are being published, and two very interesting volumes have already appeared.



Sumber

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